The Paris Peace Conference opened on January 18, 1919, an important date as it marked the anniversary of the coronation of German Emperor Wilhelm I, which took place at the Palace of Versailles at the end of the Franco-German War in 1871. The Prussian victory in this conflict had led to the unification of Germany and the conquest of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from France. In 1919, France and its Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau had not forgotten this humiliating loss and intended to avenge him in the new peace agreement. During the Kremlin meeting, Ribbentrop repeatedly called Hitler, who was nervously waiting for news in his Bavarian country. Finally, in the early morning of August 23, Ribbentrop called to say that everything was settled. As Ian Kershaw says in “Hitler: 1936-1945: Nemesis,” the German Chancellor was delighted. He congratulated his foreign minister and said the pact would “explode like a bomb.” It neutralized the Franco-Soviet treaty, which would reassure Hitler`s generals, and paved the way for Germany`s attack on Poland. Other surveys have revealed similar national differences on how Article 5 would work in practice, although the results are often complicated. In 2017, the Pew Research Center asked people in a large number of NATO member states if they would respond with military force if a NATO ally landed in a serious conflict with Russia. Tripartite Pact, an agreement concluded by Germany, Italy and Japan on 27 September 1940, one year after the start of World War II. It has created a defense alliance between the countries and is expected to largely deter the United States from entering the conflict.
Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Croatia were subsequent signatories to the pact. On the evening of 12 September 2001, less than 24 hours after the attacks, the Allies invoked the principle of Article 5. NATO Secretary General Lord Robertson then briefed the UN Secretary-General on the Alliance`s decision. In a speech to Congress in January 1918, Wilson presented his idealistic view of the post-war world. In addition to specific territorial colonies based on a victory in the Entente, Wilson`s “Fourteen Points” emphasized the need for national self-determination for Europe`s various ethnic populations. Wilson also proposed the creation of a “general union of nations” that would settle international disputes and foster cooperation between different nations in the hope of avoiding war on such a scale in the future. This organization was eventually known as the League of Nations. The “Big Four” of the victorious Western nations – Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France and, to a lesser extent, Vittorio Orlando of Italy – dominated the peace negotiations in Paris. Germany and the other defeated powers Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey were not represented at the conference; Nor did Russia, which had fought as one of the Allied powers until 1917, when the country`s new Bolshevik government concluded a separate peace with Germany and withdrew from the conflict. In the spring and summer of 1939, Hitler exacerbated his demands on the Polish government in Warsaw and insisted that Germany reconquer the port city of Gdansk (former German city, which was internationalized by the Treaty of Versailles).
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